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Effects of Terahertz Waves on Primary Neurons - A Stargazer Foretells the Way to the Synapse

Studies show that THz waves helped downregulate the expression of synaptic-related protein PSD95 and the biological effects were positively correlated.

Overexpression of PSD-95 strongly affects synaptic function; the amplitude of the excitatory postsynaptic current (EPSC) is increased up to fourfold.


Recent studies revealed a key role for PSD- 95, a scaffolding molecule enriched at glutamatergic synapses, in modulation of clustering of several neurotransmitter receptors, adhesion molecules, ion channels, cytoskeletal elements and signaling molecules at postsynaptic sites.


PSD-95 regulates the trafficking of glutamate receptors such as α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA)-type or N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) type-receptors.


Overexpression of PSD-95 enhances the amplitude of the AMPA receptor-mediated synaptic current, which in turn causes an imbalance of Glutamate/GABA.


This is especially important with any brain disorders such as neuropsychiatric pathologies.


Excitatory and Inhibitory Synapses in Balance


The excitatory vs. inhibitory (E/I) signal is a balance required to maintain proper brain function.


Excitatory synaptic transmission in the brain is predominantly mediated by the neurotransmitter glutamate, while inhibitory transmission is mediated mainly by the neurotransmitter gamma-amino butyric acid (GABA).


Altered expression of PSD-95 influences recruitment of AMPA receptors associated with NMDA/Glutamate. PSD-95 plays a prominent role in the assembly of ion channels and associated proteins at excitatory synaptic sites.


PSD-95 associates with another gene called Stargazin (CACNG2) that helps regulate AMPA receptor trafficking. AMPA receptor trafficking plays a key role in synaptic plasticity as a mechanism for learning.


AMPA receptors mediate fast synaptic transmission in the central nervous system (CNS).


Stargazin is essential for immobilizing AMPA receptors in the PSD by interacting with PSD-95.


PSD-95 stabilizes AMPA receptors to the synapse and disruption of the stargazin-PSD-95 interaction suppresses synaptic transmission.


Stargazin is a Calcium Voltage-Gated Channel gene.


Studies also show that resonant terahertz fields manipulate the conduction of calcium channels.


In addition, studies show that GABA, in its inhibitory role of glutamate, also has an absorption of terahertz waves.


In terms of neurotransmitter metabolisms, four rat brain regions (hippocampus, cerebral cortex, cerebellum, and brainstem) and three types of neuron-like cells (MN9D, PC12, and HT22 cells) showed significant changes in neurotransmitter content with the application of terahertz waves.


Glutamate (Glu) decreased significantly in hippocampal neurons, while alanine (Ala) and glycine (Gly) increased significantly.


Alanine is an amino acid that is used to make proteins. It is used to break down tryptophan and vitamin B-6. It is a source of energy for muscles and the central nervous system. It strengthens the immune system and helps the body use sugars.


Glycine is an amino acid with a number of important functions in the body. Glycine acts as a neurotransmitter, a component of collagen, and as a precursor to various biomolecules (e.g., creatine, heme), among other roles. A few studies have found supplementation with glycine can improve sleep quality, with subsequent benefits to cognitive function. High doses of glycine have been shown to improve symptoms of schizophrenia. Glycine may reduce the blood glucose response to carbohydrate ingestion. People use glycine for schizophrenia, stroke, memory and thinking skills, insomnia, and many other purposes


Glutamate Excitotoxicity


In excitotoxicity, nerve cells suffer damage or death when the levels of otherwise necessary and safe neurotransmitters such as glutamate become pathologically high, resulting in excessive stimulation of receptors. For example, when glutamate receptors such as the NMDA receptor or AMPA receptor encounter excessive levels of the excitatory neurotransmitter, glutamate, significant neuronal damage might ensue.


Excitotoxicity may be involved in cancers, spinal cord injury, stroke, traumatic brain injury, hearing loss (through noise overexposure or ototoxicity), and in neurodegenerative diseases of the central nervous system such as multiple sclerosis, Alzheimer's disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), Parkinson's disease, alcoholism, alcohol withdrawal or hyperammonemia and especially over-rapid benzodiazepine withdrawal, and also Huntington's disease.


Glutamate is a prime example of an excitotoxin in the brain, and it is also the major excitatory neurotransmitter in the central nervous system of mammals.


When the glutamate concentration around the synaptic cleft cannot be decreased or reaches higher levels, the neuron kills itself.


Increased extracellular glutamate levels leads to the activation of Ca2+ permeable NMDA receptors on myelin sheaths and oligodendrocytes, leaving oligodendrocytes susceptible to Ca2+ influxes and subsequent excitotoxicity.


Study Shows Decreased Anxiety and Depression


Results show terahertz treatment may decrease anxiety and depression in mice and increase social interaction.


The heads of C57BL/6 mice were irradiated with a terahertz source with a frequency of 0.14 THz for 20 min each time, once a day for two weeks, and then animal behavior experiments were carried out after terahertz irradiation.


In summary, we can conclude that Terahertz Therapy has a positive impact on brain function by the aforementioned. It can decrease glutamate and PSD-95 in neurons while modulating GABA and calcium signaling in the brain.


Terahertz Therapy…because there’s a whole universe out there!


Sources:


https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/31843044/

https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/neuro.02.004.2008/full

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5801047/

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3289452/

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/AMPA_receptor

https://pubs.acs.org/doi/10.1021/jacs.0c09401

https://www.science.org/doi/10.1126/science.290.5500.2270

https://pubs.rsc.org/en/content/articlehtml/2019/ra/c9ra02971k

https://www.cell.com/iscience/pdf/S2589-0042(21)01518-2.pdf

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Excitotoxicity

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8869163/


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