The rotation and vibrational energy levels of biomacromolecules fall in the energy range of terahertz waves.
Terahertz waves have been widely used in various fields, such as aerospace, communications, and medical applications, due to their unique physical properties.
The energy levels of vibrational, rotational, and weak intermolecular forces of organic macromolecules, such as hydrogen bonds and van der Waals forces, are mostly within the terahertz spectrum.
The energies of the rotational and vibrational spectra of proteins, DNA, and RNA are (5.0–25.0) meV, and the rotational energy is (25.0–1000.0) meV, which is mostly in the energy level of the terahertz spectrum (1.2–83.0) meV.
Proteins, the most abundant biomacromolecules, are direct executors of life activities. The structural basis of the protein is a series of noncovalent bonds, such as hydrophobic bonds, hydrogen bonds, and electrostatic forces, which are sensitive to terahertz waves. Amino acids, the basic units of proteins, also have resonance absorption peaks in the terahertz regime. Moreover, the proteins in the biological tissues could form water shell structures with water by hydrogen bonds, which further enhances the absorption of the terahertz wave.
Nucleic acids are macromolecules that store the genetic information of life. The energy levels of vibrational and rotational excitation, which are associated with the structure of nucleic acids, were within the terahertz spectrum.
DNA, the carrier, transmitter, and the material basis of genetic information determine the genotype of individuals. Terahertz waves are sensitive to the alteration of DNA structures mainly through a collective vibrational mode.
All genetic information is stored in DNA by the order of paired bases (A, T, C, and G). Computation of the DNA replication state suggested that the spectrum of the replicating DNA molecules was located in the terahertz regime.
Detection of Terahertz Waves on Saccharides
DNA and RNA are essentially polysaccharides. Polysaccharides are carbohydrates with complex molecular structures.
Polysaccharides are important components of organisms and can provide energy and carbon sources to support survival.
Saccharides showed distinct terahertz spectrum characteristics. Saccharides contain a large number of hydrogen atoms and oxygen atoms, and numerous hydrogen bonds can be formed by themselves or with other biomolecules.
It has been demonstrated that saccharides show a distinct terahertz absorption spectrum due to their structural characteristics. The terahertz absorption spectrum of saccharides was directly related to the vibration of intermolecular hydrogen bonds.
Glycoimmunology encompasses bonded sugar molecules known as monosaccharides, polysaccharides, oligosaccharides, etc., which are basically carbohydrate-based structures also known as Glycans, all of which are intimately involved in Glycoimmunology.
In fact, the loss of any component of these bonded sugar molecules can result in dire consequences and incompatibility with life itself.
Changes in the patterns of glycans may lead to significant alterations in immune pathway signaling, as these glycans are important sugars that serve as the first contact point of cell-cell, but also host-pathogen interactions.
Glycans are essential biomolecules for energy storage, system regulatory purposes, and play an essential role in various immune and inflammatory diseases.
Their diversity exceeds that even of DNA, with up to 25,000 genes, RNA, with approximately 360,000 mRNA, as every known cell is covered in glycans (sugars) which is as essential to life as a genome.
Also, their structures exceed by orders of magnitude the number of the proteins encoded by our genome, which can be up to 400,000 proteins.
This makes Terahertz Healing, through Glycoimmunlogy, quintessentially supreme in all things health.
Interactions include the discrimination of self and non-self, antibody recognition, pathogen binding, modulation of immunity, infectious disease, inflammation, the binding of the hemagglutinin proteins, recognition of sialic acids, glycosaminoglycan synthesis, metastasis, cell adhesion, cell-cell signaling, intracellular transport, elimination of xenobiotics, sphingolipid metabolism, and more!
Glycan patterns initiate immune reactions and virtually all cell surface receptors are glycoproteins. Glycan structures respond to environmental stimuli ranging from pH, ionic strength, hormonal stimulation, to inflammation, which aid in distinguishing health from disease, or self vs. non-self.
Carbohydrates are one example of molecular energy carriers. For example, glycoproteins which are conjugates of oligosaccharides and membrane proteins are important constituents of enormous structural diversity. In addition, they play an important role in cell-to-cell communication by the creation of cell-selective surfaces.
Thus, they can be considered as an information storage medium with Terahertz Physiotherapy leading the charge.
Effect of Terahertz Waves on Proteins
Studies have reported that terahertz wave therapy alters the activity and expression of proteins.
Titova et al. found that the levels of tumor suppressor proteins, cell cycle regulatory proteins, and damage repair proteins were upregulated in artificial human skin tissues after exposure to terahertz waves.
The data indicated that DNA damage was induced after exposure and that the repair mechanisms were rapidly activated via the DNA Damage Response thereby playing a central role in transcription regulation, DNA repair, DNA replication, and chromosomal stability.
At the RNA level, a specific terahertz wave could affect gene expression. Alexandrov et al. radiated mouse pluripotent stem cells with broadband terahertz waves at 10 THz.
These researchers found that terahertz waves promoted the differentiation of mouse pluripotent stem cells after 12 h of radiation by upregulating the expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma, adiponectin, glucose transporter 4, and human adipocyte fatty acids.
In addition to proteins and nucleic acids, other biomacromolecules, such as lipids, are affected by terahertz waves.
Terahertz Technology in Neuroscience
Terahertz waves have been shown to affect the nervous system, including the structure of nerve cell membranes, genes expressions, and cytokines levels.
Our nervous system is more vulnerable to exogenous stimuli of THz waves, due to its bioelectric basis of functional activity.
THz therapy can be used under various neurological conditions to either ameliorate disease symptoms or rescue disease pathologies, in the same way, that physical therapy does.
For example, Reukov et al. treated patients with acute ischemic stroke using infrared radiation modulated by THz frequencies.
Patients in the THz group regained consciousness and resolved neurological symptoms faster than those in the control group.
Improving oxygen delivery in the brain by increasing blood oxygen volume, promoting neuronal rejuvenation are all possible underlying mechanisms for the beneficial outcomes of THz therapy.
Studies show that THz wave therapy stimulated nerve growth, accelerated ganglion growth, and positive changes in neurotransmitters.
Neurotransmitters are important mediators of information transmission that control basic physiological functions in humans.
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